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Manusmṛti (written also as Manusmriti or Manusmruti) (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also known as Mānava-Dharmaśāstra (Sanskrit: मानवधर्मशास्त्र), is one metrical work of the Dharmaśāstra textual tradition of ancient Vedic Sanatana Dharma, presently called Hinduism.[1] Generally known in English as the Laws of Manu, or Dharmic discourse to vedic Rishis, on 'how to lead the life' or 'way of living' by various classes of society. The text presents itself as a discourse given by the sage Manu, to a congregation of seers, or rishis, who beseeched him, after the great floods,[2] in the vedic state of 'Brahmavarta', in India, some 10,000 years ago, to tell them on, how to face such calamities in future by organising themselves and lead an organized life with the "guidelines for all the social classes".[3] Veteran sages Manu and Bhrigu gave them a discourse in some 2685 shlokas, compilation of which is called 'Manusmriti'. Apart from Indian subcontinent, Manuic Laws of India prevailed during ancient times, in neighbouring countries also,[4] which formed the territory called Greater India. A copy of the Scripture (with English translation) is available online.[5] Manu became the standard point of reference for all future Dharmaśāstras that followed it.[6] Manusmriti was first translated into English in 1794 by Sir William Jones, a Philologist and a judge of the British Supreme Court of Judicature in Calcutta [7] who had great respect for the book.[8]


Date and place

Matsya pulls a boat carrying Manu and Saptrishi during floods or Pralaya
Different scholars have given a range of timings for creation of this text, from 1500 BCE to 500 AD. However, the basic fact of the time period of existence of flood-figure Manu [9][10] and Bhrigu, compatriot and contemporary of Manu, who had his Ashram on the bank of 'Vadhusar River' in the Vedic state of 'Brahmavarta',[11] who were the authors of Manusmriti, is ignored all together, which happens to be the period of great floods,[12] 10,000 years ago, after last ice age having mentions in Persian book Avesta, Indian Sanskrit text Shatapatha Brahmana and now scientific evidence is available on various websites.[2] Floods had ravaged the vedic state of 'Brahmavarta', located on the confluence of two huge Vedic rivers Saraswati and Drishadwati, where the Ashrams of Devas were located.[13] The state 'Brahmavarta' is now identified on the borders of North Rajasthan and South Haryana, mainly in and around Shekhawati and Jhunjhunu region of Rajasthan and parts of Haryana in the districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari on the basis of images of paleochannals [14] of these rivers from satellites, geo-morphological studies of the soils, which confirm presence of soil particles of Himalayan rocks in the areas represented by Saraswati river, and mentions of the area in Mahabharat, Rigved, Shatapatha Brahmana, Manusmriti and various Puranas.[15] As per epic 'Mahabharat' Bhrigu Rishi had his Ashram at 'Deepotsak' on 'Vadhusar' river, and his son Chyavana, on Dhosi Hill [16] a tributary of Drishadwati river, in the Vedic state of 'Brahmavarta'. As per Skanda Purana, Bhrigu Rishi had migrated to 'Bharuch', located on Narmada river later on. Even Archeological findings near Narmada river are dated more than 8500 years old[17] and said to be belonging to post Bhrigu era, confirming that Bhrigu and Manu had existed some 10,000 years ago, and their creation 'Manusmriti' is that old.
The identity of place 'Brahmavarta', the Vedic state [18] where, sages Manu and Bhrigu had given the discourse, and Manusmriti was compiled is also confirmed by the fact that the nomenclature used to describe, animals, birds, crops, trees, plants, house utilities, activities of people, geographical conditions etc. in 'Manusmriti' is still in use in the area, and these things exist physically also. Khetri Copper Mines and Dhosi Hill are important landmarks in 'Brahmavarta'. The Saraswati river, which had flown at the time of floods, made the western border of Brahmavarta state,[19] while northern border was formed by Drishadwati river which had flown in along the inner side of Aravali hill from the pot of 'Brahma' called Pushkar lake near Ajmer in Rajasthan. Because of seismic activities in Aravali ranges 7–8000 years ago, Monsoon water from Ajmer district stopped flowing in to Drishadwati and migrated to Chambal River, however water from part of Jaipur, Sikar and Alwar districts in Rajasthan, still flows in the old Drishadwati river, presently known as 'Sahbi river' and finally goes in to Yamuna river near Delhi.[20]


Dark orange: The Indian subcontinent. Light orange: Other countries culturally linked to India, notably Burma, Thailand, cambodia, Laos, Champa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore. Yellow: Regions with significant cultural Indian influence, notably Afghanistan, Tibet, Yunnan and Philippines. (Also, not shown, Fiji.)
Great floods [9][10] which occurred after rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers at the end of last ice age, and higher rainfalls in Aravalli ranges,[21] were devastating for habitants of Vedic state of 'Brahmavarta' and surrounding areas. Senior Rishis of the area gathered and decided to approach the oldest Saint or Rishi Manu, who had escaped the floods and is said to be 400 years old at that time, to advise the conference, from his memory (in Sanskrit and Hindi Smriti) and experiences, on 'how to face such calamities in future and lead a peaceful and organised life'.[22] Thus, the 2685 shaloks discoursed by Manu and Bhrigu to the conference on various aspects came to be known as 'Manusmriti', which some call 'Laws of Manu', while others consider it to be an 'advisory' only. This conference/congregation was also the beginning of organised living by Vedic people or formal launching of Vedic Sanatana Dharma.[23] Olivelle says that Manu's discourse was referred in all later Dharamshastras.[24]
Though most scholars had previously considered the text a composite put together over a long period of time, Olivelle has recently argued that the complex and consistent structure of the text suggests a single author. However, no details of this eponymous author's life are known, though it is likely that he belonged to a conservative Brahmin caste somewhere in Northern India.[6]
Several countries in South East Asia and neighbouring countries,[25]as shown in picture here, had followed Dharmasustra of Manu in the ancient times to form their laws, before the advent of Buddhism.[26]
An earlier opinion generally dated composition of the text any time between 200 BCE and 200 CE.[27] After the breakdown of the Maurya and Shunga empires, there was a period of uncertainty that led to renewed interest in traditional social norms.[28] In Thapar's view, "The severity of the Dharma-shastras was doubtless a commentary arising from the insecurity of the orthodox in an age of flux."[29]
The dharma class of texts were noteworthy also because they did not depend on the authority of particular Vedic schools, becoming the starting point of an independent tradition that emphasised dharma itself and not its Vedic origins.[30]


The original narrative was subdivided into twelve chapters. There is debate over the effects of this division on the underlying, holistic manner in which the original treatise was written.[31] The book is written in simple verse as opposed to the metrical verse of the preceding dharmasutras.Manu also introduced a unique "transitional verse" which segued the end of one subject and the beginning of the next.
The treatise is written with a frame story, in which a dialogue takes place between Manu's adopted son, Bhrigu, and an audience of the Rishis who had assembled. The story begins with Manu himself detailing the creation of the world and the society within it, structured around four social classes. Bhrigu takes over for the remainder of the work, teaching the details of the rest of Manu's teachings. The audience reappears twice more, asking first about how the Brahmins could be subjected to death, and second to ask the effects of action.[32] Initial Vedic seers, Bhrigu, Kashyap, Atri, Vishvamitra, and Vashista who had their Ashrams scattered in to area called Aryavarta north of Vindhyachal mountain ranges,[33] shared their wise thoughts and started compiling Rigveda, various Samhitas like Bhrigu Samhita, thoughts on astronomy, and Upnishads. They also conceived the most revered Spiritual God of Vedic people 'Lord Shiva' and means of his worship through meditation to achieve mental health and peace.[34]. The process of compilation of thoughts of wisdom (Vedas) continued through next generations for centuries onward as mentioned in Vedas.

Salient features of Manusmriti

Is verna of a person hereditary or acquired?
This is the topic that appears controversial in Manusmriti. There are several shlokas which explain the fluid nature of verna classification and how verna could be changed with acquiring knowledge. There are some others which advocate compartmentalised vernas.
For example, the Brahmins are considered the highest varna or caste, and are supposed to be engaged in learning, teaching and religious sacrifices. The Kshatriyas are the 'guardians' -- the kings, the soldiers etc., the "Vaishyas" are the traders and farmers and the "Shudras" are the serving class. The first three classes are called "twice born" or Dvija. The first three wear the sacred thread on their body, while the Shudras do not.
Knowledge is important than birth in a clan
Manusmriti assigns various roles for the four Varnas of the community on the basis of their knowledge of Vedic texts. Manu, the senior most saint at that time, did not issue an 'ordinance' on classification of community by birth, as Britishers made it out to be. Their wrong consideration of Manusmriti as an ordinance, compartmentalised the Varna system in to four rigid caste system and harmed the Indian community. Manu's sermon to the congregation of Rishis was only an 'advisory'. The concept of dwija and shudra,[35] at birth of a human is not rigid or compartmentalised. It is fluid and flexible and can change with the type of work one adopts. Yajurveda says that at birth, all humans are born shudras, but the true birth or the second birth or true verna has to be achieved through education and profession. An important message is that a Shudra could qualify to a higher class by remaining clean, showing polite behaviour and in the company of other three higher Varnas.[36] Manusmriti also says that a Brahmin would be degraded and classified as a Shudra, even if he consumes liquer once.[37] Also, if a Brahmin remains uneducated he'll be equated to Shudra [38]
Knowers of Vedic texts, the 'Brahmins' are given the most important status for their enormous contributions to Dharm, Earth and Environment.[39] Dharmic duties of Brahmins are defined as reading and gaining knowledge, teaching to others, performing Yajnas and rituals, give and accept donations [40] Kshatriyas are told to provide security to people, give donations, hold yajnas, study and not to involve in discussions.[41] while that of Vaishyas are, animal husbandry, giving donations, hold yajnas, to study, do business, charge interest and do agriculture,.[42] Shudras, who are not educated at all, are given the task to serve the other three vernas.[43] This division of community is strictly on 'knowledge' basis. Even among Brahmins, those who have higher and deeper knowledge of Vedas are considered superiors.[44]
Lower classes can upgrade
There are several examples from history, that prominent Saints were born in lower varnas but qualified to higher vernas and were duly respected by all. Rishi Valmiki who was born in lower verna got education and qualified to become a religious writer and wrote, Valmiki Ramayana which is a revered document even today. Similarly, Aitareya saint or Rishi was son of a Daasa or criminal, but became a Brahmin of highest order and wrote one of classics Aitareya Brahmana and Aitareyopanishad. Aitareya Brahman is considered critical to understand Rigveda.
There are historical migrations of verna, in ancient history. Satyakaam Jaabal was son of a prostitute but qualified later on, to become a Brahmin. Allush Rishi was son of a 'Daasi', gambler and of low character but he did research on Rigveda and made several discoveries. Not only was he invited by Rishis but also made an Acharya [45]
Prishad who was son of king Daksha, became a Shudra because of his activities, had to do tapasya and achieve salvation after repenting.[46] Vidur, who was son of a servant became a Brahmin and a prominent minister in Hastinapur empire. Similarly, Vatsa became a Rishi though born to a Shudra.[47] Vishnu Puran[48] says that Guru of Pandavas, Shaunak, was born in a Kshatriya family but bacame a Brahmin. Raavana who was born a Brahmin to Pulatsaya Rishi, is considered a 'Raakshasha'.
During medieval period, in the 16th century, the Hindu king Hem Chandra Vikramaditya born in to a family of Purohits (Brahmins) got involved in business (Vaishya) and changed his profile again and became a warrior (Kshatriya) to win 22 battles continuously against Afghan rebels and Mughal forces throughout north India.[49]

Commentaries on Manu

There have been several commentaries on the dating and place of Manu, and the Manu Smṛti. Some of the commentaries are listed below:
Bhāruci Bhāruci is the oldest known commentator on the Manu Smṛti. Kane places Manu in the late 10th or early 11th century,[50] Olivelle places him in the 8th century,[51] and Derrett places him between 600–650 CE.[51] From these three opinions we can place Bhāruci anywhere from the early 7th century CE to the early 11th century CE. The surviving portion of Bhāruci's commentary that we have today deals mostly with the duties of the king and whether or not the king can be a source of dharma.
Medhātithi Medhātithi is one of the most famous commentators on the Manu Smṛti, and there is some debate regarding the location in which he was writing, but scholars such as Buhler, Kane, and Lingat tend to believe he was from Kashmir or the area around Kashmir. The exact date that Medhātithi was writing is also unclear, and he has been placed anywhere between 820CE and 1050CE.[52]
Economic ideas The economic ideas found in Manusmriti have been traced by Ratan Lal Basu.[53]
Comments on Location of Brahmavarta
Manusmriti, one of the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, has been discussed and analysed by colonial scholars, modern liberals, and Hindu reformists regularly and continuously. Much of its criticism stems from its deemed, unknown authority, as some believe the text to be authoritative, though some consider it is only an advisory. There is also debate over whether the text has suffered from later interpolations of verses, as there are many shaloks which are contradictory to each other. The new findings on the state of 'Brahmavarta' at the junction of Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers, as described in Manusmriti itself, and abode of Vedic Rishis like Bhrigu and Manu[54] are giving credence to the timing of its writing, flood time 10,000 years ago [55]
The Manu Smriti was one of the first Sanskrit texts studied by the British. It was first translated into English by the founder of indology, Sir William Jones, who had great respect for the book.[56] His version was published in 1794.[57] British administrative requirements encouraged their interest in the Dharmashastras, which they believed to be legal codes. In fact, these were not codes of law but norms related to social obligations and ritual requirements. For British were interested in Dharmashastras due to administrative needs, and their misinterpretation of them as legal codes rather than as social and ritual texts created many confusions and encouraged caste system in India.[58]
According to Avari:
The text was not followed or acclaimed by the vast majority of Indians in their history; it came to the world's attention through a late eighteenth-century translation by Sir William Jones, who mistakenly exaggerated both its antiquity and its importance. Today many of its ideas are popularised as the golden norm of classical Hindu law by Hindu universalists. They are, however, anathema to some modern thinkers.[59]
Some commentaries suggest that the contents in Manu Smriti appear to be positive towards the Brahmin (priest) caste in terms of concessions made in fines and punishments. The stance of the Manu Smriti about women has also been widely discussed. While certain verses such as (III – 55, 56, 57, 59, 62) glorify the position of women, other verses (IX – 3, 17) seem to attack the position and freedom of women. The education of women is also discussed in the text. Certain interpretations of Verse (IX – 18) claim that it discourages women from reading Vedic scriptures. Verse (II – 240), however, allows women to read Vedic scriptures. Similar contradictory phrases are encountered in relation to child marriage in verses (IX – 94) and (IX – 90).
Woman is to make her body beautiful by adorning it with clothes and ornaments; that the man may be attracted by her. Woman is to be so worshipped that she be made a fitting decoration for the man’s bedroom. Manu has given women the equal share in the parental property.
The laws of Manusmrithi consider woman to be an individual bound by the family relationships, with no rights of her own. The verses of the fifth chapter starting from 147 to 169 are all about the woman. Even if she were to become a widow in her youth, she is not to marry again, though now all Varnas go for re-marriages. Even if her husband indulges in adultery, she is still to consider him on equal footing with God. Woman is entitled to share in the wealth of the family. The wages for her labour will be half that of the man. So goes the laws of Manusmrithi concerning woman.[60]
In his book Revolution and Counter-Revolution in India, Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar opined that Manu Smriti was written by a sage named Brigu during the times of Pushyamitra of Sangha in connection with social pressures caused by the rise of Buddhism.[61] However, historian Romila Thapar considers these claims to be exaggerations. She writes that archaeological evidence casts doubt on the claims of Buddhist persecution by Pushyamitra.[62] Support of the Buddhist faith by the Sungas at some point is suggested by an epigraph on the gateway of Bharhut, which mentions its erection "during the supremacy of the Sungas"[63] Hinduism does not evangelize.[64]
However, not all Hindus agree with the criticisms of the text, or the assertion that the Manu Smriti is authoritative. Some prominent Hindu figures, such as Swami Dayananda Saraswati[65] and A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami,[66] hold the text to be authentic and authoritative. Other admirers of the text have included Annie Besant, P.D. Ouspensky, Pandurang Shastri Athavale and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Friedrich Nietzsche is noted to have said "Close the Bible and open the Manu Smriti. "It has an affirmation of life, a triumphing agreeable sensation in life and that to draw up a lawbook such as Manu means to permit oneself to get the upper hand, to become perfection, to be ambitious of the highest art of living"[67] Contra Nietzsche, Nipissing University philosophy professor W.A. Borody has coined the phrase "sublimation-transmogrification logic" to describe the underlying 'state of mind' lying behind the ethical teaching of the Manu Smrti—a 'state of mind' that would have found Nietzsche's concept of the Dionysian Übermensch abhorrent, and a 'state of mind' or 'voice' that has always been radically contested within India's various philosophical and religious traditions.[68]



  1. ^ See Flood 1996: 56 and Olivelle 2005.
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ Manusmriti Chapter 1, Shalok 2
  4. ^ Wikipedia page on Law of Thailand Sources of Law
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b Olivelle, "Literary History", p. 16.
  7. ^ Jones's translation is available online as The Institutes of Hindu Law: Or, The Ordinances of Manu, Calcutta: Sewell & Debrett, 1796.
  8. ^ Statue of Sir William Jones,in St. Paul's Cathedral in London is shown holding a copy of Manusmriti in hand
  9. ^ a b Matsayapuran
  10. ^ a b Vishnupuran
  11. ^ Sudhir Bhargava,"Location of Brahmavarta State and Drishadwati River is important to find the earliest alignment of Saraswati River", Seminar on Saraswati River-A Perspective,International Conference Nov. 20-22, 2009, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Saraswati Shodh Sansthan, Haryana
  12. ^ Saroj Bala, "Saraswati River a Mystery",'India Today', August 2006,pages 29-33
  13. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 2, shalok 17
  14. ^ P.C.Bakliwal and A.K.Grover,1988, Signature and migration of Saraswati river in Thar desert, Western India, Rec. Geo. Survey of India, 116: Pts. 3-8, pp. 77-86:
  15. ^ 'Location of Brahmvrat and Drishadwati River is important to find earliest alignment of Saraswati River' by Sudhir Bhargava, International Conference on Saraswati River-a Perspective, at Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, organised by, 'Saraswati Nadi Shodh Sansthan, Haryana', Nov. 20-22, 2009, p. 114-117
  16. ^ Mahabharat, Vanparv, shaloks 7-18
  17. ^ Bharuch page on Wikipedia
  18. ^ Sahiram; Ek Adhuri Kranti, Shekhawati ka Kisan Andolan, (1922-52), page 3
  19. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 2, Shalok 19
  20. ^ Location of Brahmavarta and Drishadwati river is important to find the Earliest alignment of Saraswati River' by Sudhir Bhargava, Saraswati river a perspective, International Confeence, Nov. 20-22, 2009, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
  21. ^ Saroj Bala, Saraswati River - a Mystery,India Today August 2006, pages 29-33
  22. ^ shalok 1.2, 1.3, Manusmriti
  23. ^ Sudhir Bhargava, "Location of Brahmavrat and Drishadwati river is important to find the earliest alignment of Saraswati River", international conference on "Saraswati River - a Perspective" at Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, organised by 'Saraswati Shodh Sansthan', Haryana, Nov. 20-22, 2009, page 114-117.
  24. ^ Litrary History, page 16
  25. ^ Wikipedia page on-Law of Thailand- Sources of Law
  26. ^ "Siamese law : old and new."
  27. ^ For composition between 200 BCE and 200 CE see: Avari, p. 142. For dating of composition between the 2nd century BCE and 3rd century CE see: Flood (1996), p. 56. For dating of Manu Smriti in "final form" to the 2nd century CE, see: Keay, p. 103. For dating as completed some time between 200 BCE and 100 CE see: Hopkins, p. 74. For probable origination during the 2nd or 3rd centuries AD, see: Kulke and Rothermund, p. 85. For the text as preserved dated to around the 1st century BCE. see: Encyclopædia Britannica Concise, retrieved 2007-06-24
  28. ^ For significance of post-empire social uncertainty as a factor in the development of the Code of Manas, see: Kulke and Rothermund, p. 85.
  29. ^ Thapar (2002), p. 279.
  30. ^ For the dharmashastras, including Manu Smriti, as the starting point for an independent tradition not dependent on Vedic origins, see: Hopkins, p. 74.
  31. ^ Olivelle(2004), pp. xxvii.
  32. ^ Olivelle(2004), p. xxv.
  33. ^ Manusmriti Chapter 2, shalok 17
  34. ^ Sudhir Bhargava, "Yoga for Mental Health - through rejuvenation of Spiritual Gods", 3rd International Yoga Seminar, 12-14 October 2012, Yoga Life Society, Ujjain, INDIA
  35. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 1, Shalok 34
  36. ^ name="Manusmriti, Chapter 9, Shalok 335
  37. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 11,shalok 97
  38. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 2, shalok 157
  39. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 1, Shaloks 97,98,99,100
  40. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 1, Shalok 88
  41. ^ Manusmriti, Ch.1,Shalok 89
  42. ^ Manusmriti, Ch.1,Shalok 90
  43. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 1, Shalok 91
  44. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 1, Shalok 98
  45. ^ Aitareya Brahman, Chapter 2, Shalok 9
  46. ^ Vishnu Puran 4.1.13
  47. ^ Aitareya Brahman, Chapter 2, Shalok 19
  48. ^ Chapter 4.8.1
  49. ^ Page on Hem Chandra Vikramaditya on Wikipedia
  50. ^ Kane, P. V., History of Dharmaśāstra, (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1975), Volume I, Part I, 566.
  51. ^ a b Olivelle, Patrick, "Dharmaśāstra: A Literary History", 29.
  52. ^ Kane, P. V., History of Dharmaśāstra, (Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, 1975), Volume I, Part II, 583.
  53. ^ Ratan Lal Basu & Rajkumar Sen, Ancient Indian Economic Thought, Relevance for Today, Rawat Publications, New Delhi (2008). ISBN 81-316-0125-0
  54. ^ Manusmriti, Chapter 2, Shalok 17
  55. ^ All about Vedic state of Brahmavarta, by Sudhir Bhargava, p3, Brahmavarta Research Foundation, Rewari
  56. ^ Statue of Sir William Jones in St. Peter's Cathedral, London is holding a copy of Manusmriti
  57. ^ For Manu Smriti as one of the first Sanskrit texts noted by the British and translation by Sir William Jones in 1794, see: Flood (1996), p. 56.
  58. ^ Thapar (2002), pp. 2–3.
  59. ^ Avari, Burjor. India, the ancient past: a history of the Indian subcontinent from c. 7000 BC to AD 1200. New York: Routledge, 2007. p. 142.
  60. ^ name="
  61. ^ Revolution and Counter-Revolution in India
  62. ^ Romila Thapar, Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas, Oxford University Press (1960) p. 200.
  63. ^ John Marshall, "An Historical and Artistic Description of Sanchi", from A Guide to Sanchi, citing p. 11. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing (1918). Pp. 7–29 on line, Project South Asia.
  64. ^ K. V. Rao, Socialism, Secularism, and Democracy in India, pp. 28–30. Nagendra K. Singh, Enforcement of Human Rights in Peace and War and the Future of Humanity, p. 35. Martinus Nijhoff (1986) ISBN 90-247-3302-2
  65. ^ The Light of Truth, Chapter 4
  66. ^ Bhagavad Gita As It Is, Chapter 16 Text 7 – "...Even up to today, those who are Hindu follow the Manu-samhita..."
  67. ^ Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power, vol. 1.
  68. ^ W.A.Borody, "The Manu Smrti and Neo-Secularism", International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol I, No. 9 (Special Issue, July, 2011) [1]


  • Translation by G. Bühler (1886). Sacred Books of the East: The Laws of Manus (Vol. XXV). Oxford. Available online as The Laws of Manu
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  • Hopkins, Thomas J. (1971). The Hindu Religious Tradition. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
  • Keay, John (2000). India: A History. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
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  • Olivelle, Patrick (2004). The Law Code of Manu. New York: OUP. ISBN 0-19-280271-2.
  • Olivelle, Patrick (to be published). "Dharmasastra: A Literary History". In Lubin, Timothy; Krishnan, Jayanth; and Davis, Jr., Donald R.. Law and Hinduism: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
  • Thapar, Romila (2002). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24225-4.
  •  "The Laws of Manu". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

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