Saturday, June 2, 2012

मगर जाति र संस्कृति.....

===दिपेन योङहाङ===

The Magars
Total population
Regions with significant populations


 Hong Kong

 United Kingdom

 China (Tibet)


 United States of America






Magar language
Kham language
Nepali language

The Magars (Nepali: नेपाली-मगर) are an indigenous ethnic group of Nepal whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the Himalayas range south to the Mahabharat foothills eastward into the Gandaki basin. Representing 7.14% of Nepal's population according to the 2001 census, this is the largest indigenous group in Nepal. According to the 2001 census, 74.60% of ethnic Magar were Hindus and 24.47% were Buddhists.
The Magars are divided into 7 major groups: Thapa, Ale, Rana, Budhathoki, Roka, Gharti, and Pun. Magar clans intermarry with one another and[2] are officially of equal social standing.[3]
The group was first mentioned in AD 1100, when the Magar King of Palpa and Butwal, Mukunda Sen, invaded and conquered the Nepal (Kathmandu) valley.[4] It is always understood, however, that they have resided round about Palpa from time immemorial and that they were probably the earliest settlers from the north. This part of the country was formerly divided into twelve districts, each under its own ruler, being known as the Barah, or twelve Magarant[5] or twelve Thams, the members of each supposedly being of common extraction in the male line. Some records show these twelve areas as being Argha, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Khanchi, Ghiring, Rising, Bhirkot[disambiguation needed ], Payung, Garhung, Dhor and Satung,[6] but it is probable that some of the latter places should have been excluded in favour of Palpa, Galkot, Dhurkot, Char Hajar Parbat and even Piuthan and Salyan.[3]
The Magars of middle and western Nepal played a role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities (17th and early 18th centuries).[7] Hamilton, during his research in Nepal in 1802, came to a conclusion that all the kings of 24 principalities including Sen King of Palpa in the Western Nepal were Magars.[8] Magars believe that they and the Thakuris have the same origins.[7][9] Many of the Magar aristocracy joined the Thakuri caste and status.[7] In recent years many scholars and historians claimed that Nepal's former Shah rulers were the descendants of Magar Kings of the Barah Magarath/Kali Gandaki region. The 18th-century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal announced himself a Magar king. According to Hamilton, Mincha and Khancha Khan, the forefathers of former Shah kings of Nepal, were of Magar descent.[10] Baburam Acharya, a prominent historian of Nepal, also confirmed that Nepal's former Shah kings were the descendents of Magar Kings.[11]
Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed that Aramudi, an eighth century ruler of the Kali Gandaki region, was a Magar King.[12][13][14][15] "Aramudi" derives from the word for 'river' in the Magar language.[16] 'Ari'-'Source of Water' + 'Modi'-'River'='Arimodi' or 'Aramudi', thus the literal meaning of Aramudi is 'source of river'.[17] Jayapida [782-813 AD][18] also called Vinayaditta, a king of Kashmir, invaded Kali Gandaki Region, a traditional homeland of the Magars of Nepal. Aramudi resisted the invasion.[19] After capture by Aramudi, Vinayaditta was taken to the right banks of the Kali Gandaki river,[20] in a strongly built fort,[21] where Aramudi imprisoned him.[20] Jayapida was a powerful king of Kashmir who ruled for 31 years and defeated the kings of Kanyakubja(Kannauj),[22] and Prayag/Allahabad in Utter Pradesh, India. He was in a conquering expedition to the valley of the Ganges.[22]



Genetically and physically, Magar people are Mongoloid/east Asian. They are believed to have migrated from Tibet like the Gurungs and other prominent ethnic groups, however, there is an interesting mythical story describing Magar's origins and versions of three different language groups are presented.[23]
The Magar of the Bara Magaranth (a group of twelve Magar kingdoms east of the Gandaki River) are said to have originated in the land of Seem. Two brothers, See Magar and Chintoo Magar, fought, and one remained in Seem while the other left, ending up in Kangwachen in southern Sikkim. The Bhutia people lived at the northern end of this region. Over time, the Magars became very powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. Sintoo Sati Sheng ruled in a very despotic manner and the Bhutia conspired to assasinate him. Sheng's queen took revenge and poisoned 1000 Bhutia people at a place now called Tong Song Fong, meaning "where a thousand were murdered." The Bhutia later drove the Magar out, forcing them to again migrate further south; as part of this migration, one group migrated to Simrongadh, one group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region and another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given.
A second Magar federation called Ather Magarat (18 Magar Kingdoms) was situated west of the Gandaki River, inhabited by Kham Magar. The origin legend of this group is that four brothers got lost while hunting. They camped overnight and from the distribution of chores rose the various jats or tribes. The first tribe was the Bahun Magar (the eldest brother's tribe), then came the Thakuri Magar (the second eldest brother), then the Khas Magar (the third brother) and lastly the Kami Magar (the youngest brother).
The Tarali Magar are said to have originated from a woman who fled the region of Jumla during a war between Kalyal kings. It is not known who her spouse was but she arrived at Tarakot on the verge of giving birth to a son. One day the boy saw a strange phenomenon in the jungle lake where he went with his cattle; the lake is said to have filled with milk, and seven shining creatures like fairies bathing in the waters of the lake. He was enthralled and came to observe them daily. One day he told his mother about this strange sight and she advised him to touch the youngest of these angels; this would cause her to become human so he could marry her, and he brought the beautiful damsel to his mother. When they asked her who she was she replied in a tongue, which was incomprehensible for them. The devi was offered some bread and she uttered the words "Tai khe nan." Slowly they began to learn the language of this woman and Kaike was spread among themselves. The language was called Kaike, meaning language of the Gods.
Bernard Pignede also collected other texts from various sources that tell the origin of Magar.

In Nepali

One of the Nepali texts originated in eastern Nepal where the Rais and Limbus live. It goes as follows: "The Kirati are the oldest inhabitants of Nepal. Soyenbumanu who lived in the land of Hemonta had several children. The third went towards Thailand, Burma and Cochin-China. The second, Thoinua, went off towards Japan. The eldest went towards Tibet and arrived at the northern frontier of India. His name was Munainua. He had ten children: Yoktumba, founder of the Limbus; Yakakowa, founder of the race of Rais; Lunpheba, founder of the Larus; Thanpheba, Suhacepa, founder of the Sunwars (Chepangs, Thamis); Gurupa, founder of the Gurungs; Mankapa, founder of the Magars; Toklokapa, founder of the Thakalis; Tamangs and Sherpas; Thandwas, founder of the Tharus; and of the Danwars. For thirty-three generations, the Kirati governed in Kathmandu."


The tribes are structured with septs followed by the sub-septs and the next smallest groups are the gotras. The Magar people are divided into three sub-tribes with linguistic classification, as there are three languages among the Magar people.
Linguistically, these clans can be categorised as follows:
Language Septs
Magarkura speakers Ale, Thapa, Rana, Singjali, most of Magars
Khamkura/Magar Pang speakers Budha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, Jhankri
Kaike speakers Tarali Magar of Dolpa/Budha, Gharti, Rokaya, Jhankri


Of the 1,622,421 Magar people in Nepal, 770,116 speak a Magar language as their mother tongue. The Kham Magar of Rapti Zone speak Kham language. In Dolpa District, the Magar speak Tarali or Kaike language. The Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family. Magarkura speakers are Ale, Thapa, Singjapati and Rana. Similarly Khamkura speakers are Budha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, Shrees, Jhankri, and Kaike speakers are Tarali Magar of Dolpa/ Budha, Gharti, Roka, Jhankri.[2] Language expert Madhav Pokhrel says that there is 16%[24] similarity between Magar Language and Hungary's Magyar Language.[25] The 1971 census put the total population of those who spoke the Magar language at 288,383, i.e. 2.49 percent of the total population of Nepal, of which more than half lived in the Western hills of Nepal.[26]

Influence of Magar on Nepali

The Khas language, originating in Jumla and the Sinja Valley, influenced Nepali language which incorporated words from Sanskrit and Magar language . Many Magar words are used even today, especially location names. Some are:[27]
  • Dhaulagiri (Dhaula-difficult, gi-following down, ri-water)
  • Chomolungma (cracked peak)
  • Lhotse (a cone-shaped container made of corn-cob cover)
  • Sisne Himal (a fallen head)
  • Kanchanjunga (clear peak)
  • Koshi (deep), Kali Gandaki/Kali Gandi (dirty water)
  • Bheri/Bhiri (river rolling down from a cliff)
  • Karnali (curved), {(di = water Cf. Sanskrit nadi (na+di)= river}
  • Budhi Gandaki/Budi Gan + di (Having a lot of water)
  • Bagmati/Bangmadi (Bang-meadow suitable for human settlement; madi-river)
  • Marsyangdi (serpentine river)
  • Kot/Koi (place where government administration is conducted)
  • Patan (meadow filled with short grass and small bushes)
  • Dhorpatan (Dhor-extended and wide)
  • Sinja (sin-wood; ja-pot)
  • Galkot/Galkoi (Gal-brave)
  • Musikot (musi-a place in the shadow)
  • Gorkha/Garkhakoi (a small village)
  • Gaam (a big village)
  • Ligligkot (a high Kot)
  • Rupandehi/Rupadihi (rupa-silver; dihi-field)
  • Lumbini/Lungbingi (lung-stone; bingi-without)
  • Chitwan/Chidvan (chid-dense; van-jungle)
  • Dang (long)
  • Salyan (paved platform for rest)
  • Sindhuli/Singdhuli (a heap of ashes)
  • Tilaurakot/Tilawakoi (place selling sesame seed)
  • Jhapa (a land full of soil)
  • Tansen/Tansing (Tan-straight; sing-wood/timber)
  • Baglung/banglung (lung-a - stony)
  • Kushma (a confluence)
  • Dhankuta (place above a cliff)
  • Hile (a place that comes immediately after you climb an uphill path)
  • Mechi (low flat land)
Some scholars opine the amount of Magar words in Nepali indicates that Magarat (historic Magar lands) were larger than generally believed, extending from Dhading to Doti.,[28] that the place suffix Kot indicates a place from which Magar kings formerly ruled.


The original religions or beliefs of Magar people are Shamanism and Tengriism and the northern Magar practice Tibetan Buddhism in which their priest is known as Bhusal.
The majority of Magars are Hindu, although Buddhism is common in the Magar area, though are less evident in Kham hinterlands particularly in the ranges along the boundary between Rukum and Pyuthan-Rolpa districts. These hinterlands are geographically and therefore culturally isolated from the beaten tracks of transhimalayan trade routes and from rice-growing lowlands.
(Hitchcock, 1966:25-34). Animists and shamanism form part of the local belief system; their dhami (the faithhealer or a kind of shaman) is called Dangar and their jhankri (another kind of faithhealer or shaman) is called Rama. Bhusal was the traditional spiritual and social leader of the Magars (Bista, 1996:66). Magars have an informal cultural institution, called Bheja, who performs religious activities, organizes social and agriculture-related festivities, brings about reforms in traditions and customs, strengthens social and production system, manages resources, settles cases and disputes and systematizes activities for recreation and social solidarity (Dhakal, 1996). Some educated and prosperous Magars are shifting closer to traditional Hinduism in recent years.

Dress and ornaments

The Magar of the low hills wear the ordinary kachhad or wrap-on-loincloth, a bhoto or a shirt of vest and the usual Nepali topi. The women wear the pariya or sari or lunghi, chaubandhi cholo or a closed blouse and the heavy patuka or waistband and the mujetro or shawl like garment on head. The higher altitude Magars wear an additional bhangra and the ones living in Tarakot area even wear the Tibetans chhuba. The ornaments are the madwari on the ears, bulaki on the nose and the phuli on the left nostril, the silver coin necklace and the pote (green beads) with the tilhari gold cylinder and kuntha. Magar males do not wear ornaments but some are seen to have silver or gold earrings hanging from their earlobes called gokkul. The magar girls wear the amulet or locket necklace and women of the lower hills and the high altitude ones wear these made of silver with muga stones imbedded in them and kantha. The bangles of gold and glass are also worn on their hands along with the sirbandhi, sirphuli and chandra on their heads. These are large pieces of gold beaten in elongated and circular shapes.


Agriculture and the military are the primary sources of income. Magars constitute the largest number of Gurkha soldiers outside Nepal.[29] Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa was the descendant of a Magar Thapa, as was General Amar Singh Thapa.[30] Sarbajit Rana Magar became the head of government during the regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi.[31] Biraj Thapa, General Abhiman Singh Rana Magar and Sarbajit Rana Magar headed the Nepal army. Biraj Thapa Magar was the very first army chief in Nepal Army's history.[32] Magars are famous as gallant warriors wherever they served in the past. The Magars are well represented in Nepal's military, as well as in the Singapore Police Force, the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, and they are also employed as professionals in the fields of medicine, education, government service, law, journalism, development, aviation and in business in Nepal and other countries.
Dor Bahadur Bista's observation of Magar's occupation during the 1960s was, "Some of the northernmost Magars have become quite prosperous by engaging in long-range trading that takes them from near the northern border to the Terai, and even beyond to Darjeeling and Calcutta. Were it not for their role in the Gurkha regiments of the Indian and British armies, their self-sufficiency might be endangered."[33] Toni Hagen, who did his field research in Nepal during the 1950s, observed "Magars possess considerable skill as craftsmen: they are the bridge builders and blacksmiths among the Nepalese, and the primitive mining is largely in their hands. On the lower courses of the Bheri & Karnali rivers, a great number of Magars annually migrate to the Terai & there manufacture bamboo panniers, baskets, and mats for sale in the bazaars along the borders. In their most northerly settlement, on the other hand, the important trading centre of Tarakot on the Barbung river, they have largely adopted their way of life, their clothes, and their religion to that of the Tibetans; like the latter, they also live by the salt trade. As regard race, the Magars have almond-shaped eyes or even open eyes, whereas Mongoloid eyes are very rare."[34] Lt Gen (Retd) Y. M. Bammi (PhD), Indian Army, who served with Gurkhas for many years observes about Magars, "Magars resemble Mongols, and are considered more handsome. However, being the first to have come into contact with immigrants from India, some of their sub-clans have lost their Mongoloid looks."[35]

Mountaineering expeditions

Magars, often those serving in the British Indian Army in the 19th century, were skilled mountaineers. Subedar Karbir Budhathoki from 5th Gorkha Rifles (GR) scaled Mount Trishul (23,400 feet) in the Garhwal Hills, Uttarakhand, India. Parbir Thapa, Amarsingh Thapa, Karbir Budhathoki and Harkabir Thapa, all from 5th GR accompanied mountaineering expeditions in the Alps on three occasions between 1891 and 1899.[36] Dr Harka Gurung confirmed that Karbir Budhathoki and Amarsingh Thapa were pioneers of mountaineering expeditions in Nepal's history. They climbed 39 high altitude passes and 21 mountain peaks in 86 days in theKarakoram mountain range. Corporal Tejbir Budha from 3rd Gorkha Rifles stayed at Chomolongma/Mt Everest at 7772 metres for two nights in 1922. He was awarded and Olympic Medal by French president for his courage in 1927.[37]
Sergeant Till Bikram Budhathoki (Gulmi) from 1/1 GR scaled Mt Everest on 23 May 2001 as a team member of the Indian Army Everest Expedition 2001.[38][39] During the Mt. Everest Golden Jubilee Celebration, three Magars from the Nepalese Army scaled Mt. Everest as team members of the Indo Nepal Army Everest Massif Expedition. Sergeant Lok Bahadur Magar from Okhaldhunga and Corporal Dutta Bahadur Budha from Gulmi scaled Mt Everest on 22 May 2003 and Gunner Kul Bahadur Ale Magar from Lamjung scaled on 26 May 2003.[40]

Magar Victoria Cross (VC) winners

The Gurkha soldiers showed outstanding courage in all theatres of the two World Wars by winning many decorations, including VCs. Hence, Nepal became famous for her Gurkha soldiers, as much as for Mt Everest.[41] On total, 5 Victoria Crosses (out of 13 VCs awarded to Gurkhas) were awarded to the Magars, who are:
  • First World War:
    • Rifleman Kulbir Thapa, the very first Gurkha to win VC in recognition of his valor and bravery. He was from Palpa. He served in 2/3 Gurkha Regiment (GR). He received VC in France in 1915.
    • Rifleman Karanbahadur Rana, Gulmi, was from 2/3 GR. He received VC in Egypt in 1918.
  • Second World War:
    • Subedar Lalbahadur Thapa, Nepal Tara[42] was from 2nd GR. He received VC in Tunisia in 1943.
    • Rifleman Tul Bahadur Pun,(born 23 March 1923) was from Myagdi. He served 6 GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944. He is a living recipient of the VC. He later achieved the rank of Honorary Lieutenant. In addition to the VC, Pun has been awarded 10 other medals, including the Burma Star.
    • Subedar Netrabahadur Thapa, was from 5th GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944.

Magar Conspicuous Gallantry Cross (CGC) Winner(s)

Sgt Deep Prasad Pun Magar,31, has been decorated with Conspicuous Gallantry Cross(CGC), Britain's 2nd highest Medal for Bravery. He had joined British Gurkha Army in January 2000.He was born in Bima Village Development Committee, Myagdi district, West Nepal. ( More to follow soon).

Magar kings

  • Shintoo Sati Sheng/Sen- King of Kangwachan, Sikkim/Nepal, before Lichhabi Rule in Nepal.[43]
  • Aramudi- Nepaladesyasya Raja/King of Kali Gandaki Region, 8th century.King Aramudi and Other Magar Rulers of Kaligandaki region/Magarat, 8th century, defeated Kashmiri king Jayapida in Kali Gandaki Region."काश्मिरेतिहास " पृष्ठ ९९ " अथ अरमुदी एति प्रसिद्वो मायाबी नेपालदेश्यस्य राजा जयपीदम अभिसंधातुमैच्छ्त,[44]
  • Jeetu Magar- king of Chha-Bisa Kot, Rolpa, donated present day Dang district to his son-in-law.
  • Bali Hang Rana Magar- king of Baldeng Gadhi extended from Pokhara to Gorakhpur, 12th century,[45] west of Palpa.
  • Mukunda Sen- king of Tansen/Palpa & Butwal, 11th century. It is said that during his time Tansen was extended up to Gorakhpur.
  • Gajalaxman Singh, king of Makawanpur Gadhi.[46]
  • Micha Khan, king of Nuwakot/Syangja, staunch follower of Hinduism, latter Shah kings of Nepal were direct descendants from him.(Khan title had its origin in Tibetan kingdoms and later adopted by Turks)
  • Khancha, king of Dhor etc.
  • Dalsur Ghale Magar, King of Lig Lig Kot (Gorkha) from 1548 to 1559 AD.
  • Mansingh Khadka Magar- king of Gorkha, till 27 Sept 1559 AD.
  • Tulu Paija Magar - King of Pakhapani

Notable Magars

*Subarnakar Rana (1000 AD) writer of 'Treatise on Buddhism'. *Ganga Rana from Lamjung, Nepal, wrote Asta Saahasrika Pragya Paarmita in 1070[47] and Treatise on Buddhism in 1069. *Shohab Rana (शोहब राना):, Panchali Pradhan of Magwar Bisaya,(Magar Kingdom - present Dullu-Dailekha area) 1100 AD.[48]" शुभमस्तु,सम्बत २२१ मार्गशुक्ल दशाम्य . राजाधिराज परमेश्वोर : श्रीमत शिवदेव महाराजै श्री रामदीन समन्त विजयराजै . "मन्ग्वर्बिशय" झानतेशोवर भात्तरकस तदे गेथी पंचालिकेना :च्छेपरम ग्व्न्द ओपलेम . श्री इद भावो नायक. श्री धनप नायक श्री सोहब राने. येत पध्याना वर्तनीय."[49]
*Gangaram Rana, of Gorkha who helped Drabya Shah, the founder of the Shah Dynasty. to found Gorkha Kingdom in 1559. (He receives little attention among the Magars today as he helped uproot Magar Dynasty from Gorkha although his name is mentioned with high appreciation in the Gorkha Vansavali( गोरखा वंसावली - written in between 1837–42) - The Genealogy of Shah King's of Gorkha)
*Kaji Jayanta Rana, Army Chief during King Nara Bhupal Shah's rule, later chief/Umrao of Nuwakot force, 18th century.
*Kaji Ramkrishna Thapa, Army Chief during King Nara Bhupal Shah's rule.
*Kaji Biraj Thapa, the very first Chief of Nepalese Army, 1743–1744.
*Kaji Sarbajit Rana, Moolkaji, Army Chief of Nepal (for 4 months) 1785. Upon relinquishing Army Chief, The Chief Administrator i.e. Prime Minister.
*Bandu Rana, Moolkaji.
*Prabal Rana, Moolkaji.
*General Abhimansingh Rana Magar, Nepalese Army Chief, 1845–1846.
*General Puran Singh Ale magar, commander of Gorkhali unification war against Limbuwan and Sikkim in the rule of Pratap Singh Shah. However he could not succeed to annex those areas even after repeated campaign. Later he became adjutant to Damodar pandey, Kehar Singh Basnyat, Abhiman Singh Basnyat and Shivram Singh Khatri to win those areas.
* Lakhan Thapa(1835–1877): The first martyr of Nepal.[clarification needed]
* Hobir Ale (1907–1990) freedom fighter, then government had declared bounty on head for his political conviction.[50]
* Dal Bahadur Thapa (1907–1945): joined the Indian National Army, supporting the Japanese against the British in World War II, for which he was executed at Delhi.
* Ek Dev Ale (1924–1969) freedom fighter, fought during Indian independence movement by joining Aajad Hind Army (1941–1947), was a social reformer.[51]
* Dilip Singh Ale (1926–2003) freedom fighter. Took part in Janamukti Sena, Birat Nagar Camp Quarter Master, to topple autocracy and bring democracy in 1950.[52]
* Buddha Singh Rana (1934–1962). Ancestral home, Barbhanjyang, Tanahu District, Nepal. Born under some compelling circumstances in Lucknow, India, Buddha Singh Rana actively took part in Indian Independence Movement. Obtaining, Intermediate Degree from India, he came to Nepal in 1954 and began teachig in school. He also worked as the secretary of Nepali Congress Party, Tanahu District Committee. He was appointed secretary to minister Dilip Kumar Shahi. Mr. Shahi was Industry and Commerce minister in B. P. Koirala's cabinet formed on June 30, 1959. Later in 1962, leading Nepali Congress's Liberation Army planned to attack Bharatpur, but failed. This freedom fighter received martyrdom on February 11, 1962. The government force took his life and his dead body could never be found.[53]
* Suresh Ale - A scholar, professor of English and the founding Secretary General (executive chief) of Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (नेपाल जनजाति महासंघ), the umbrella organization of indigenous peoples of Nepal who form 37.38% of total population of Nepal. He was one of the founder General Secretary of Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sangh (नेपाल लांघाली परिवार संघ) a social organization for the preservation of Magar language and culture) which has now been renamed Nepal Magar Association (नेपाल मगर संघ). He is now a Constituent Assembly member from the United Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).
*Professor Jagat Bahadur Singh Burathokey. Head of the Geography Department(Tribhvan University). Father of Geography in Nepal. Scholar.
* Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar, first PhD degree holder from Magar community,[54] famous social worker and scholar of Nepal.
* M. S. Thapa: Political thinker, first Magar Attorney of Nepal, President of Rastriya Janamukti Party (राष्ट्रिय जनमुक्ति पार्टी )- a political party for the liberation of Nepalese people on the basis of proportionate representation.
* Gore Bahadur Khapangi, (b. August 10, 1946) Minister and the charismatic leader, whose contribution to the social change in Nepal is exceptional.
*Bam Kumari Budha, First Magar woman, to become member of then Nepal's parliament ( Rastriya Panchyat). She was born in Rolpa district.
* Ram Bahadur Thapa / Badal, Former Defence Minister, General Secretary, Communist Party of Nepal (United Maoist).
*Major General Bhagwan Singh Thapa, Rai Bahadur Sahib, Commander Kashmir State Forces, I.O.M (Indian Order of Merit), Resident of Srinagar, Kashmir State (India).
*Colonel Lacchman Singh Thapa, Adjutant Quarter Master General, Kashmir State Forces, Resident of Srinagar, Kashmir State (India).
*Brigadier Sher Jung Thapa, Mahavir Chakra (MVC), Indian Army, resident of Dharmasala, Himachal Pradesh, (India).
*Master Mitrasen Thapa, famous Napali folk singer, social worker, resident of Bhagsu/Dharmasala, (India).
* DIG Parbati Thapa, First Magar woman, to hold a distinguished position as the Deputy Inspector General of Nepal Police.
* Sangini Rana, was born in Palpa, west Nepal. A sociologist by training, she is one of the leading figures of Women's Rights Movement in Nepal. Executive Director of Nepal Indigenous Women's Federation (नेपाल जनजाति महिला महासंघ) and Founding President of Nepalese Indigenous Women's Federation in America, a recently[when?] founded organization in New York, USA.
* Rashmi Thapa Magar: She is a rights activist and women's leader.She hails from Lungdi Khola (लुंदी खोला - please check the name of the stream in Magar language) in Gorkha, just some 30 -40 minutes away from Kahule Bhangar, the birth place of Martyr Lakhan Thapa Magar. She is also somehow related with the Martyr Thapa. She is the founding President of National Indigenous Women's Forum (राष्ट्रिय आदिवासी महिला मंच), an organization of indigenous women of Nepal, a first of its kind in the country.
* Dal Bahadur Rana: One of the famous boxers of Nepal.
* Raj Pal Thapa was one of the famous radio comedians of Nepal. His comedies used to be very subtle and of distinguished quality and were aired by Nepal's national radio service: Radio Nepal. He worked with his friend Mr. Hada.
* Bal Ram Thapa: (also known as बराथा ) One of the prominent political cartoonists of Nepal. His cartoons have come out in Gorkhapatra (गोरखापत्र), a government owned, oldest broadsheet daily news paper (in vernacular Nepali) from Kathmandu.
* Hemata Thapa: First Magar entrepreneur in Canada. He is the owner and CEO of Everest Craft Inc in Toronto. He was born in Syanja district, west Nepal. He is the founding President of Magar Association Canada (MAC) also.
* Kabita Ale: A renowned folk singer of Nepal. She is an actress also. She is the president of Nepal Magar Culture Association
* Major Dhan Singh Thapa, later Liutenant Colonel Paramvir Chakra (PVC), Indian Army, resident of Simla, Himaachal Pradesh (India).
*Shyam Thapa Famous Football player of India, Resident of Bhagsu/Dharmasala, (India).
*Brigadier Sanjeev Kumar Thapa, Presently serving the Indian Army as a Brigade Commander.
*Mr Pyar Singh Thapa, IITian and well known Architect originally from Bhagsu/Dharamsala (India). Now residing in Italy.
*Mr J.P. Thapa, IITian, Retired Mech Engr.B.Tech (Hons) IIT/Kh 1961. M.Tech IIT/B 1963. Well-known engineer from Dehradun (India).
* Arun Thapa, popular Nepali singer, singer of ritu haruma timi hariyali basanta hau. etc.
* Khadga Jeet Baral Magar, former IGP of Nepal Police, ambassador of Nepal to Burma/Myanmar etc.
* Giri Prasad Burathoki, only Magar Badahakim, Defence Minister, Honorary Major General of Nepalese Army.
* Nar Bahadur Budhathoki, first Magar Maj General of Nepalese Army after the fall of Rana autocracy.
* Lt Colonel Lal Bahadur Pun, first Nepalese citizen to pick up the rank of Lt Col in two century old service to the British Army.
* Top Bahadur Magar, Justice of Supreme Court, Nepal.
* Govinda Prasad Thapa, former AIGP, PhD, Magar scholar of Nepal.
* Barshaman Pun, Minister, Nepal Government, one of the most influencing young political leaders.
* Prof Dr Trilok Pati Thapa, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu.
* Dr Kesharjung Baral, PhD, Professor, Vice Chancellor, Pokhara University, Nepal.
*Balaram Gharti Magar, former Cabinet minister, 11 times minister, and a famous politician.
*Mahabir Pun, recipient of Magsaysay Award, considered Asia's Nobel prize.
*Som Ale, PhD, Famous Wildlife Biologist, the Snow Leopard Conservency's Regional Conservation Director, USA.
*Khagendra Thapa Magar, the shortest man of the world.
* Pramila Thapa, Nepal's female black belt champion and world black belt Tae kwon do sparring champion and 10-board breaking champion. She represented Nepal in Taekwondo in the 1992 Summer Olympics.
* Khadga Garbuja Magar- most popular folk singer.
* Narayan Singh Pun- Nepal Army Lt Col (helicopter pilot), owner of Karnali Air (helicopter), social mobilizer, former minister, mediator of Maoist-Government talk, Founder President of Nepal Samata Party.

First Magar Convention - 1957

Under the leadership of minister Giri Prasad Burathoki, a first ever Magar Convention was held in Bharse of Gulmi District, one of the 12 Magarats in 1957.
  • The objective of the conference was to sensitize the Magars to come forward in the national spectrum.[55]

Nepal Langhali Pariwar - 1972

  • Organization:
  • Keeping their chin up and to move forward in the national context, some promising Magar youths decided to found a voluntary social organization of The Magars in Kathmandu in 1972. They named the organization as Langhali Pariwar. It was the landmark entity, founded so far, in the present day history of the Magars.
  • Objectives:
  • to preserve Magar language and culture;
  • to get involved in research and documentation of important historical facts;
  • to sensitize Magars by organizing different programmes;
  • to publish the glorious history of the forefathers. Langhali was the quarterly newsletter of the organization.
  • The founders and the executive committee of Langhali Pariwar:
  • Khildhoj Thapa - founder president,
  • Maya Rana (Thapa) - founder vice-president,[56]
  • K. B. Rana Magrati - founder general secretary,
  • Top Bahadur Thapa - founder secretary,
  • Prabha Budhathoki - founder treasurer,

Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sangh

Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sangh was undoubtedly and unequivocally the base for the founding of the of Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sangh. The founders of Nepal Langhali Pariwar Sangh (Then after Nepal Langhali Sangh and presently Nepal Magar Sangh) are as listed below:
  • Hem Bahadur Pun Magar (Kaski) - Founder President,
  • Ran Bahadur Ale Magar (Gorkha)- Founder Vice-President,
  • Suresh Ale Magar (Tanahun) - Founder General Secretary,
  • Jaya Bahadur Hitan Magar (Rupandehi)- Founder Secretary,
  • Manbir Garbuja Magar (Rupandehi)- Founder Treasurer,

Langhali Pariwar Sangh

Another national organization of the Magars - Langhalee Pariwar Sangh was also founded in 1978. This committee could not function as it was generally perceived. However, this organization also could provide a base for the founding of the Nepal Magar Sangh of today. The Committee was formed under the leadership of Dr. Harsh Bahadur Budha Magar:
  • Dr. Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar - President,
  • Suresh Ale Magar -Secretary,
  • Top B.Thapa Magar- Member,
  • Dr. KesharJung Baral Magar- Member,
  • Note: Langhali in Magar language means "of the village" or "langha" > village suffixed with "ali" > "of" and "pariwar" > "family"[57]

Gorkha, 'Aayo Gorkhali' and War of Nalapani 1814

  • "Aayo Gorkhali (आयो गोर्खाली)": Literally - 'Gorkhali Came', or here come the Gokhalis, is a world famous phrase of two words: 'Aayo'(आयो) and Gorkhali (गोर्खाली). The residents of Gorkha, west Nepal, are known as Gorkhalis in a strict geographical sense. But today, the word 'Gorkhali' refers to the people of entire Nepal and Nepali speakers around the world for their honesty, dedication, indomitable courage and bravery.
  • Gorkhali King Prithivi Narayan Shah(1723–1775; Nepali: पृथ्वी नारायण शाह) had his 'divine counsel' which was called "Divyaopadesh (दिव्योपदेश)' for his progeny. The later kings, after him followed the counselling. Even the last king of Nepal, Gyanendra Shah also followed it until 2006.
  • In the 'Divyaopadesh (दिव्योपदेश)' Prithivi Narayan Shah has also said " only Khas, Magar, Gurung and Thakuri" should be recruited in the Gorkhali Army as they can make brave soldiers who can even conquer 'Sworga' (स्वर्ग - heaven) Indra's seat in the heaven (इन्द्रको राज्य स्वर्ग) also.
  • Nepal fought against the East India Company at the fort of Nalapani (near Dehradun, India) on November 1, 1814. Kaji Balabhadra Kunwar had led his troops from "Purano Gorakh Battalion" (पुरानो गोरख गण = meaning 'old battalion of the Gorkhas). Only Magars used to be recruited in the "Purano Gorakh Battalion". This national guideline persisted until the overthrow of monarchy of Nepal in 2006.
  • There were 600 Gorkha soldiers with women, and some toddlers in the fort during the battle. They fought the battle for 30 days, (not to mention, without drinking any water for 3 days as the British force had cut the pipeline down below the fort). The Gorkhali force fought with great courage and valour. On November 30, 1814 they left the fort. There were only 70 soldiers surviving including Balbhadra. Later some troops of Purano Gorakh Battalion fought against Colonel Ochterlony's troops at the Battle of Deuthal in the leadership of Sardar Bhakti Thapa.
  • Impressed with the valour of the Gorkhalis, the British India erected stone pillar engraving sincere praise - the courage and valour of the Gorkhalis. After the war a treaty was signed following which, the British India would form 3 Battalions of Gorkhalis. Later those Battalions were renamed 1st, 2nd and 3rd Gorkha Rifles/GR.
  • From these 3 Battalions, Gorkhali soldiers fought far and wide: the War at Pindari (1817), War of Marahatta (1817), War of Bharatpur (1825–26), War with Sikhs (1845–56) and Indian Sepoy Mutiny (1857), War with Afghanistan (1878), War of Wajirastan (1878), War at Cyprus (1878) War with Burma (1885) and War with China (1900). In all these wars, the Gorkhali Troops stood victorious. Wherever the Gorkhalis could reach in the battlefield, they would shout 'Aayo Gorkhali', the enemies would get frightened and subdued eventually.[58]


  1. ^ 2001 Census, Nepal Government.
  2. ^ a b, Retrieved on 02 Nov 09.
  3. ^ a b Ministry of Defence. 1965.Nepal and the Gurkhas.London:Her Majesty's:Stationery Office.p.27.
  4. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993 (reprint). Sohab Rana Magar was also a ruler in Dullu Dailekh, western Nepal in AD 1100 (The Earliest Copper Plate Inscription from Nepal -1977) . A copper plateThe Gurkhas.New Delhi:Anmol Publications.p.21.
  5. ^ Northey, W. Brook & C. J. Morris. 1927. The Gurkhas Their Manners, Customs and Country. Delhi : Cosmo Publications. (122-125)
  6. ^ Brian Hodgson and Captain T Smith also give this information.Eden Vansittart.1993 reprint.The Gurkhas.p.84.
  7. ^ a b c Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.62.
  8. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993 (reprint)The Gurkhas.New Delhi:Anmol Publications.p.82.
  9. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
  10. ^ Ministry of Defence. 1965.Nepal and the Gurkhas. London:Her Majesty's:Stationery Office.p.23.
  11. ^ Pradeep Thapa Magar.2000.Shah Vanshiya Rajkhalak ra Magar haru. Kathmandu: Jilla Memorial Foundation.
  12. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajyako Aitihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: T.U.
  13. ^ Dr Swami Prapannacharya. (1994-95) Ancient Kirant History. Varanasi: Kirateshwar Prakashan.p.518.
  14. ^ Hark Gurung, Iman Singh Chemjong, B.K. Rana, Prof. Raja Ram Subedi, Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi etc. support the conclusion of Aramudi being the king of Kali Gandaki Region.
  15. ^ Mahesh Chaudhary.2007. "Nepalko Terai tatha Yeska Bhumiputraharu".p.9
  16. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. Op.cit.
  17. ^ Balaram Gharti Magar, who has been researching the names of different peaks, places, and rivers in Nepal for a long time, confirms the name is "Arimodi." The name was transcribed "Aramudi" by Kashmiri Sanskrit historian Kalhana in his book "Rajatarangini."
  18. ^, Retrieved on 01 Nov 09.
  19. ^ A Short Note on King Aramudi and Other Magar Rulers of Kali Gandaki Region by B. K. Rana,, Retrieved on 02 Nov 09.
  20. ^ a b Baburam Acharya, Nepalako Samkshipta Itihasa (A short history of Nepal), edited by Devi Prasad Bhandari, Purnima No. 48, Chaitra 2037 (March–April 1981), Chapter VII: Pachhillo Licchavi Rajya, (I. Sam. 642-880 Am.) (the later Licchavi Dynasty, circa A.D. 542-800). pp. 1-5.
  21. ^ P.N.K.Bamzai.1994.Culture and Political History of Kashmir.Vol 1.Ancient Kashmir.New Delhi: MD Publications Pvt Ltd.p.131.
  22. ^ a b Sufi,G.M.D.1974.Kashir a History of Kashmir.Vol 1.New Delhi:Light & Life Publishers.pp.54-55.
  23. ^ Tribal Ethnography Of Nepal Volume-II, by Dr. Rajesh Gautam and Asoke K. Thapa Magar.
  24. ^ Karna Bahadur Budha Magar, Nepali-Magar Pang-English Dictionary. Kathmandu.
  25. ^ "Magar Haruko Europeli Natedar."Himal.Barsha 5.Anka 3.2052BS.p.38.
  26. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.38.
  27. ^ Balaram Gharti Magar.1999. Roots. Tara Nath Sharma (Tr.). Lalitpur: Balaram Gharti Magar.
  28. ^ Balaram Gharti Magar, 1999. Ibid.
  29. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.664.
  30. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993 (Reprint).The Gurkhas.New Delhi: Anmol Publications.p.67.
  31. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu:Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.32.
  32. ^ Army Chiefs' Historical Record. Army Museum. Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  33. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.64.
  34. ^ Tony Hagen.1970.Nepal the Kingdom in the Himalayas.New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.p.84.
  35. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gurkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.27.
  36. ^ R.D.Palsokar.1991.History of the 5th Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) Vol III.1858 to 1991.Shillong:The Commandant, 58 Gorkha Training Centre.p.31.
  37. ^ Himal.2050.Gorkha ra Sherpa.p.157.Lalitpur:Himal Association.
  38. ^ on 9 Feb 2010.
  39. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gurkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.523.
  40. ^ ‘’Everest South Side Expedition: Indian & Nepalese Army’’, accessed on 4 Feb 2010.
  41. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gorkhas of the Indian Army.New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.93.
  42. ^ Pradeep Thapa Magar.2000.Veer Haruka pani Veer Mahaveer.p.9.
  43. ^ Subedi, Rajaram. Magar Jati ko Nalibeli.
  44. ^ B. K. Rana - Sanchhipta Magar Itihas 2003 - PP25. - B. K Rana - Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 pp 96 Kalhana's Rajatarangini]. Op cit Kashmiretihas, Hanuman Prasad Shastri Acharya, 1968, New Delhi India.
  45. ^ Nar Bahadur 'Naru Thapa'. 2067 BS. Kiraat Magar Itihas. Kathmandu: Nirantar Prakashan.
  46. ^ Nar Bahadur 'Naru Thapa'. ibid.
  47. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajya ko Itihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: Nepal & Asia Research Centre. p.99.
  48. ^ Dhanabajra Bajracharya. 2064 BS. Gopalraj Vanshawali Aitihasik Vivechana .Kirtipur:T.U.
  49. ^ B. K. Rana - Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - PP 27शुभमस्तु ,सम्बत २२१ मार्गशुक्ल दशाम्य . राजाधिराज परमेश्वोर : श्रीमत शिवदेव महाराजै श्री रामदीन समन्त विजयराजै . "मन्ग्वर्बिशय" झानतेशोवर भात्तरकस तदे गेथी पंचालिकेना :च्छेपरम ग्व्न्द ओपलेम . श्री इद भावो नायक. श्री धनप नायक श्री सोहब राने. येत पध्याना वर्तनीय. Op cit 'The Earliest Copperplate Inscription from Nepal'. By Mahesh Raj Pant and Aishworyadhar Sharma, Tribhuvan University, Center for Nepal and Asian Studies 1977.
  50. ^ B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - pp 82 -83
  51. ^ B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - pp 83 - 87
  52. ^ B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 - pp 87
  53. ^ B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas - 2003 -pp 88-90
  54. ^ Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha.Kiratvamsha & Magars.p.498.
  55. ^ B. K. Rana - Sanchhipta Magar Itihas 2003 - pp 82
  56. ^ She is one of the descendants of Buddibal Rana - The much admired hero of Nepal - Tibet War of 1855]'. बुद्धिबल राना थिया जीउका भारी | चार जाना भोटेलाई घुडा धसी मारी || फर्मायसी बन्दुकमा कल पनि चढ़ाया | दनादनी गोली बर्षाई भोटे गिराया || ओलंग बस्ने लाल बहादुर आउमासी द्वारा लिखित श्रीमती मोती देवी, सर्व हितैषी कंपनी, बनारस सिटी द्वारा सन १९४२ म़ा प्रकाशित "भोटको लडाईको सवाई' पेज ७ देखि ९ - For full sawai (folksong)please see - B. K. Rana- Sanchhipt Magar Itihas - 2003 - page - 68 - 69
  57. ^ B. K. Rana : Linguistic Dynamism In South Asia: Some Insights Into Recent Change And Development In Different Language Communities Of Nepal. April 30, 2005. Vedam Publications, New Delhi, India. and Langhali, quarterly
  58. ^ B. K. Rana: Sanchhipta Magar Itihas- 2003 - pp93-94


  • Acharya, Baburam, Nepalako Samkshipta Itihasa (A short history of Nepal), edited by Devi Prasad Bhandari, Purnima No. 48, Chaitra 2037 (March–April 1981), Chapter VII: Pachhillo Licchavi Rajya, (I. Sam. 642-880 Am.)
  • Aryal, Jibnarayan. (2058BS). Dr Harsha Bahadur Buda Magar: Bigat ra Bartaman. Lalitpur: Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar.
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  • Cross, J.P. (1986). In Gurkhas Company. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd.
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